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Moreno Bernardini, a restless young Tuscan, was the first to create the first commercial plantation in the Transalpine country on his family’s Scarlino farm. Driven simultaneously by Professors Godini and Bellomo of the University of Bari, Mr. Giovanni Cantore undertook the first plantation in La Puglia. Currently, companies like Innova (Puglia) are promoting this system in a very professional manner. It is surprising that the second-leading olive oil producer in the world has become involved in modernizing his such inefficient olive groves so late. There are basically 3 reasons: little available land, difficulty in pulling out and reconverting the old olive groves and major difficulty with the use of imported varieties in order to conserve their genuineness. Many of us fear that these problems will be too large an obstacle and except for the region of La Puglia where new olive-growing developments can be undertaken, it will not be possible to reconvert the rest of the olive groves. It is very complicated for Italy to quickly adapt its olive-growing culture without subsidies for 2013. Most likely, Italy will lose the hegemony it had in the sector to other countries.